According to local reports, several hundred Spartak supporters arrived at the station to walk to VTB Arena – the venue for the game – and the clash began when they met some Dynamo fans who had also gathered inside.
Video footage shared on social media shows both groups of fans participating in a huge skirmish, with people fiercely kicking and punching one another.
The uncontrollable brawl, which then spilled over onto the streets of Moscow, left at least three people seriously injured.
Dozens were arrested as police attempted to bring the violent scenes under control.
Going into the match, Dynamo had a two-point advantage over Spartak – which they then squandered, losing the game 2-0.
The clubs swapped places in the Russian Premier League (RPL) table, with Spartak moving to ninth place and Dynamo dropping down to 10th.